The findings suggest that interventions promoting citizen engagement via the “short route,” improving direct engagement between service users and service providers, are often effective in stimulating active citizen engagement in service delivery and realizing improvements in access to services and quality of service provision. However, in the absence of complementary interventions to address bottlenecks around service provider supply chains and service use, citizen engagement interventions alone may not improve key wellbeing outcomes for target communities. In addition, interventions promoting citizen engagement by shortening the “long route” – improving governance by increasing citizen pressures on politicians to hold service providers to account – are not usually able to influence service delivery.

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